What is a novel-coronaviruses?
Referring to the CDC( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ), coronaviruses are part of a large family of viruses that cause illnesses in mammal. In special cases, coronaviruses can mutate or evolve to infect people. The new virus is officially referred to as “2019 novel coronavirus” or “2019-nCoV.”
Where does this virus started?
The evidence is highly suggestive that the outbreak is associated with exposures in one seafood market in Wuhan. The market was closed on 1 January 2020. At this stage, there is no infection among healthcare workers, and no clear evidence of human to human transmission. The Chinese authorities continue their work of intensive surveillance and follow up measures, as well as further epidemiological investigations.
History and Background
Coronaviruses were identified in the mid-1960s and are known to infect humans, birds and mammals. Since 2002, two coronaviruses infecting animals have mutated and caused outbreaks in humans: SARS-CoV (2002, Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus), and MERS-CoV (2012, Betacoronavirus, subgenus Merbecovirus)
In 2002–2003, SARS-CoV was estimated to have affected 8 096 people, causing serious pulmonary infections and 774 deaths. Bats were the likely origin of the virus, which spread further to Himalayan palm civets, Chinese ferret badgers and raccoon dogs sold for delicacy at the wet markets of Guangdong, China. MERS-CoV was identified in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and since then the majority of human cases have been reported from the Arabian Peninsula. Human-to-human- transmission, particularly in healthcare settings, has been the main route of transmission. However, dromedary camels are important animal reservoirs of the virus. The case fatality ratio of MERS-CoV infections is estimated at 35%.
Similary to novel-coronavirus, this virus has evolved and were transmitted to human but stronger and faster. Thus novel-coronavirus is categorized as a part of the coronavirus.